united states – IMOS Journal http://imos-journal.net/ Sat, 19 Mar 2022 16:18:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://imos-journal.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/favicon.png united states – IMOS Journal http://imos-journal.net/ 32 32 West accuses Russia of using UN Council to spread propaganda https://imos-journal.net/west-accuses-russia-of-using-un-council-to-spread-propaganda/ Fri, 18 Mar 2022 19:47:46 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/west-accuses-russia-of-using-un-council-to-spread-propaganda/ The meeting was originally intended for a vote on Russia’s draft resolution on humanitarian aid to Ukraine, which has been widely criticized for making no mention of Moscow’s invasion of its neighbour. But Russia canceled the vote on Thursday and said it would instead use the meeting to raise what it called new allegations of […]]]>

The meeting was originally intended for a vote on Russia’s draft resolution on humanitarian aid to Ukraine, which has been widely criticized for making no mention of Moscow’s invasion of its neighbour. But Russia canceled the vote on Thursday and said it would instead use the meeting to raise what it called new allegations of US involvement in biological warfare activities. These have been repeatedly denied by the United States and Ukraine.

The six Western nations – the US, UK, France, Albania, Ireland and Norway – issued a joint statement just before the session saying: “This meeting and these lies are designed in a sole purpose, to deflect responsibility for Russia’s war of choice and the humanitarian catastrophe it has caused.

They said Russia, not Ukraine, has a long-standing biological weapons program in violation of international law and has a well-documented history of using chemical weapons.

And they accused Russia of abusing its responsibilities and privileges as a permanent member of the Security Council and subverting the Council’s mandate to ensure international peace and security, calling its “horrible campaign of violence against the Ukrainian people…deeply shameful”.

US Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield, who read the joint statement, later told the Security Council not to forget why they were meeting – “because Russia knew its cynical ploy to pass an exculpatory resolution had failed. and she had to cancel Friday’s vote.

The resolution would have required at least nine “yes” votes from the 15-member council and no vetoes from a permanent member to pass. Russia’s UN ambassador Vassily Nebenzia said he didn’t have the votes, accusing the West, and in particular the United States and Albania, of exerting “unprecedented pressure” on Thursday. on UN member countries for opposing the measure.

On Friday, Thomas-Greenfield reiterated what she told the council during a March 11 session convened by Russia on its initial bioweapons claims: “Ukraine does not have a bioweapons program . There are no Ukrainian bioweapons labs, not near the Russian border, or anywhere.

Ukraine only has public health facilities supported by the United States, the World Health Organization and other governments and international institutions, she said.

Reiterating the Biden administration’s concern over a possible false flag effort, Thomas-Greenfield said, “We continue to believe that it is possible that Russia is considering using chemical or biological agents against the people of Ukraine.” .

Nebenzia responded by calling accusations that Russia intends to deploy biological and chemical weapons against Ukraine “real cynicism”.

“We have already warned that we know, and we have officially warned (…) against Ukrainian nationalists using chemical agents in certain areas to carry out a provocation, and then accusing Russia of having it done,” he said. “This is a false flag operation.”

Last week, Nebenzia said the Russian Defense Ministry had documents accusing Ukraine of having at least 30 biological laboratories conducting “very dangerous biological experiments” involving pathogens, and that the work “is being done, funded and overseen by the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency. states.”

He circulated a 69-page document to board members at Friday’s meeting and claimed that the MoD had received new details over the past week “that allow us to assert that the components of the biological weapons were being created on the territory of Ukraine” to implement a 2005 U.S.-Ukrainian agreement.

“In simple terms, the Ukrainian authorities have given carte blanche to the Pentagon on Ukrainian territory to conduct dangerous biological experiments there,” Nebenzia said.

Ukraine owns and operates a network of biological laboratories that have obtained funding and research support from the United States. They are part of an initiative called the Biological Threat Reduction Program which aims to reduce the likelihood of deadly disease outbreaks, whether natural or man-made. American efforts date back to the 1990s to dismantle the former Soviet Union’s weapons of mass destruction program.

“The labs are not secret,” Filippa Lentzos, senior lecturer in science and international security at King’s College London, said in an email to The Associated Press last week. “They are not used in connection with biological weapons. This is all misinformation.

British Ambassador to the UN Barbara Woodward, referring to the March 11 meeting called by Russia, said on Friday: “It was nonsense then, and it is nonsense now.”

UN disarmament chief Izumi Nakamitsu reiterated what she told the council last week: “The UN is not aware of any such biological weapons program” and does not has no mandate to investigate the Russian allegations.

Russia’s Nebenzia called the material it posted on March 11 and Friday “just the tip of the iceberg.”

He said the Department of Defense was receiving and analyzing more new documents and would continue to keep the Security Council and the international community informed “of the illegal activities carried out by the Pentagon on Ukrainian territory.”

Russia presented its draft humanitarian resolution on Tuesday, a day after France and Mexico announced that their own humanitarian resolution on Ukraine was being transferred from the Security Council, where it was certain it would face a veto. Russian, in the General Assembly of 193 members, where there is no veto.

The Franco-Mexican draft resolution would demand “an immediate cessation of hostilities” and would deplore “the disastrous humanitarian consequences of the hostilities against Ukraine”, provisions which do not appear in the Russian resolution.

French Ambassador Nicolas De Rivière told reporters on Thursday that the resolution will be presented to the General Assembly next week. Britain’s Woodward expressed hope that he would get more than the 141 votes received by a March 2 resolution demanding an immediate end to Moscow’s offensive against Ukraine and the withdrawal of all Russian troops.

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The West’s competition with China in the Balkans – European Council on Foreign Relations https://imos-journal.net/the-wests-competition-with-china-in-the-balkans-european-council-on-foreign-relations/ Wed, 16 Mar 2022 14:11:46 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/the-wests-competition-with-china-in-the-balkans-european-council-on-foreign-relations/ In 2021, Montenegro’s economic infatuation with China has left it on the brink of financial collapse. The first repayment of the $944 million road construction loan from the Export-Import Bank of China was due in July. And defaulting on that loan could have had disastrous economic consequences. For example, a default could have triggered contractual […]]]>

In 2021, Montenegro’s economic infatuation with China has left it on the brink of financial collapse. The first repayment of the $944 million road construction loan from the Export-Import Bank of China was due in July. And defaulting on that loan could have had disastrous economic consequences. For example, a default could have triggered contractual clauses that led to the seizure of infrastructure assets by the Chinese state bank. Therefore, some sort of reckoning seemed to be in sight. But, after many political dramas, two American banks and a French one came to the rescue.

Suddenly Western observers were forced to acknowledge China’s attempted economic takeover of this NATO member state: politicians quickly held hearings in the European Parliament and convened workshops on the issue; the European Commission and key member states rushed to organize expert briefings; and, in due time, research bodies produced weighty “global” analyses, attempting to reshape Western policy in the face of the crisis. Ultimately, the creeping Chinese appropriation of the EU candidate country was prevented. And that should stimulate a more structured and convincing Western approach.

China’s strategy

The signs of Beijing’s push into southeastern Europe have long been clear. Perhaps the most obvious of these are Serbia’s transformation into a regional hub for Chinese activities and the development of various energy and infrastructure projects in the Western Balkans. But there are lesser dynamics at play, such as Beijing’s continued interest in maritime infrastructure along the Adriatic coast and the gradual expansion of its diplomacy beyond economic affairs.

Political factors have also propelled the implementation of China’s strategy in Southeast Europe. These include the continuing geopolitical stalemate in the region, the lack of a clearly defined EU response to third country activities in this region and the recent suspension of Montenegro’s accession process to the EU. EU. At the same time, Western Balkan countries continue to need effective policies and tools to bridge their development gap with the rest of the continent, further inviting Chinese overtures. For most people in the region, the resurgence of geopolitical competition is the new normal. And, for many, this change is to be welcomed.

Signs of Beijing’s push into southeastern Europe have long been clear

However, Beijing is beginning to encounter major difficulties. He has lost the edge of discretion now that China’s activities in the region – including the conditions attached to various forms of engagement with the country – have drawn the attention of politicians, protesters and researchers. The NATO membership of countries such as Albania and North Macedonia sealed several areas of cooperation with China, such as critical infrastructure, 5G technology, data and e-governance. It can be said that the European Union investment plan for the Western Balkans is a belated and insufficient political response. But it was formulated as a direct reaction to Chinese involvement and will go some way to addressing the shortage of high-quality infrastructure in the region.

Meanwhile, there is growing popular dissatisfaction with China-related projects. For example, civil society organizations organized a blockade in February 2022 to protest against the construction of a tire factory in Serbia; Bosnian coal miners staged a strike in December 2021 to protest labor and environmental standards at a factory based in Tuzla; and non-governmental organizations have long been concerned about the environmental impact of a motorway construction project in Montenegro.

In addition, Beijing has traditionally felt most comfortable dealing with de facto autocratic regimes (such as that of Serbia under President Aleksandar Vucic and Montenegro under President Milo Djukanovic) and entrenched governments (the one of North Macedonia under the VMRO). But, in recent years, China has had to deal with power transitions in North Macedonia and Montenegro. The new governments of the old country oriented their foreign policy more firmly towards the West, while – as mentioned above – Podgorica relied on Western banks to contain the potentially drastic consequences of a default. on its huge Chinese debt.

The Western response

Elements of a more coherent Western response are emerging. The aforementioned EU economic and investment plan for the Western Balkans has the potential to mature into a new targeted development framework. And the adoption of the EU Global Gateway strategic initiative is a notable sign of the evolution of political thinking about infrastructure and its importance in the new geopolitical normal.

At the national level, the new German government has affirmed its commitment to the region, adopting a broader geopolitical perspective. France, meanwhile – as holder of the Presidency of the Council of the European Union – takes a similar approach. Moreover, there is a new group of members of the European Parliament who have pledged to do more to counter the actions of China and Russia in the Western Balkans.

Further, the Biden administration has increased U.S. engagement in the region, both building on previous policies (the “Clean Network” initiative in critical infrastructure) and expanding new territories with the adoption of sanctions targeting individuals destabilizing the region. The creation by the G7 of the “Build Back Better World Partnership”, with a decisive contribution from the United States, indicates a more profound shift in strategic thinking on regional influence.

But China is unlikely to be deterred by a change in Western approaches. Geopolitically, Beijing abhors irrelevance – and it will view a decline in influence and its partial removal as an affront. Therefore, China has undertaken various efforts to respond to the changing context in the Western Balkans and beyond. One is a tilt towards a “green” agenda in the “Belt and Road” initiative and in the “16+1” format of cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries. Another is a greater focus on small and medium-sized businesses, as China recognizes the limitations of only engaging with large companies. After Lithuania’s departure from what was ’17+1′, Beijing is visibly shifting its focus to the Western Balkans. China has also learned to operate in more complex political environments, as shown by its growing diplomatic activities in Bosnia.

Meanwhile, Russia’s war on Ukraine could lead to deeper Sino-Russian cooperation in the Western Balkans and could accelerate EU and NATO efforts to integrate countries in the region. Neutral foreign policy postures such as that of Serbia are now more likely to become untenable.

Overall, as China faces headwinds after years of operating in a largely permissive environment, it is also readjusting its approach in the face of heightened geopolitical competition. In the struggle between the West and China in the region, this is now the game.

The European Council on Foreign Relations does not take a collective position. ECFR publications represent the views of its individual authors only.

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Official Budget Council (February 1) and Tribal Council (February 3) results https://imos-journal.net/official-budget-council-february-1-and-tribal-council-february-3-results/ Tue, 01 Mar 2022 18:44:17 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/official-budget-council-february-1-and-tribal-council-february-3-results/ Official results of the Budget Council – Tuesday 1 February Res. No. 119: Budget Amendment, Cherokee Fire Dept. FY22 (add miscellaneous income) – CARRIED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12) Res. #120: EBCI Emergency Management is authorized to request and accept FEMA-BRIC funds in the amount of $1,000,000 for FY22 – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous=88, Absent: […]]]>

Official results of the Budget Council – Tuesday 1 February

Res. No. 119: Budget Amendment, Cherokee Fire Dept. FY22 (add miscellaneous income) – CARRIED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #120: EBCI Emergency Management is authorized to request and accept FEMA-BRIC funds in the amount of $1,000,000 for FY22 – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous=88, Absent: Crowe=12)

Res. #121: The EBCI Natural Resources Program is authorized to request and accept funds from the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in the amount of $10,000 – PASSED (Unanimous = 88, Out: Crowe = 12) Res. No. 122: A Resolution for the Estate of Zane Edwin Bowman (d) – CARRIED

Res. No. 123: A resolution for the succession of Steven Allen Teesateskie (d) – ADOPTED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. No. 124: A resolution for the estate of Rosie Mae Sequoyah Hornbuckle (d) – CARRIED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. No. 125: A resolution for the succession of Patrick Daniel Teesateskie (d) – ADOPTED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Item 8: A resolution for the estate of Mickie Driver (d) – DETAINEE

Res. No. 126: A Resolution for the Estate of Matthew Nicholas Drake Starlin – CARRIED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. N°127: Two donation resolutions for the month of February 2022 – ADOPTED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. N°128: Banning of Tella Antoinette Page – ADOPTED (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #129: Banishment of Richard Allen Dickson – PAST (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #130: Banishment of Lori Ann Buchanan – PAST (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #131: Banishment of Jonathon Lee Newberry – PAST (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #132: Banishment of Evanna Ulexis Lee – PAST (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Res. #133: Banning of Eric Daniel Vaughn – PAST (Unanimous = 88, Absent: Crowe = 12)

Item #17: Cheryl Dion Cole Banned – HELD UNTIL MARCH COUNCIL

Tribal Council Results – Thursday, February 3

Ord. No. 1: Amendment to article 105-3, provides for declared tax exemptions – TABLED for WORKING SESSIONS

Res. No. 5: Resolution requesting the cancellation of Res. No. 570, Acknowledgment of Heirs of Allen Boyd Queen (d) – WITHDRAWN (rewrite and submit for March)

Res. No. 9: A resolution to transfer Birdtown Community Parcel No. 562 from Catherine Christine Owle to Ruby Owle Crowe – WITHDRAWN

Res. No. 32: A resolution granting an access road and right of way for utilities through Wolftown Community Parcel 120-G to Wolftown Parcel 1006 – CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Ord. No. 82: Amendment to Chapter 50 of the Cherokee Code to Require Mediation of Custody Actions and to Allow Grandparent Involvement – TABLED for BUSINESS SESSION

Ord. No. 83: Amendment to article 117-10 of the Cherokee Code, reporting to Council – CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Ord. No. 84: An Order Amending Section 28-2 of the Cherokee Code to Clarify If a First Generation Descendant Dies While Still Possessing a Right of Possession to Tribal Trust Land, the Right of Possession Will Revert to the Tribe – TABLED for WORKING SESSIONS

Res. #89: A resolution granting several right-of-way easements to the NC Department of Transportation to provide safety and mobility improvements along NC 143 from Robbinsville to Stecoah – FILED

Ord. No. 134: An Order Amending Section 117-10.1 of the Cherokee Code, Amending the Initial Chain of Command for Legislative Counsel and Senior Staff – FILED

Ord. #135: Amendment to Article 16C-5 of the Cherokee Code, distribution to members – Filed

Ord. N° 136: Modification of article 117-41 of the Cherokee Code, EBCI Investment Committee – FILED

Ord. #137: Amendment to Chapter 161 of the Cherokee Code, Tribal Elections (post filing) – FILED

Ord. #138: An Order to Improve Areas of Opportunity for Licensed Medical Cannabis Establishments – FILED

Ord. No. 139: An order to add criminal defense to the list of functions of the EBCI Legal Assistance Office – FILED

Ord. #140: Cherokee Code Amendment, Chapter 55-B Strike Articles – FILED

Ord. #141: Cherokee Code Amendment, An Order to Reorganize Financial Accountability Requirements and Add Language for Annual Audit Requirements – FILED

Ord. #142: Amendment to Chapter 16C of the Cherokee Code, Gaming Revenue Allocation Plan – FILED

Ord. No. 143: An Order Establishing Victims’ Rights – FILED

Ord. #144: Amendment to Chapter 96-11 of the Cherokee Code, giving the Chief of Police greater authority to deal with personnel matters – FILED

Res. No. 145: Resolution requesting the Tribal Council to hereby designate a parcel crossing Galbraith Creek Road and the current THPO office crossing the highway. 19 (Ela Road) of Kituwah Field in Swain County – AMENDED/ADOPTED (Unanimous = 100)

Res. No. 146: A resolution granting a temporary construction easement to the EBCI Department of Natural Resources for Wolftown Parcel No. 1169 without the signature of Ronald Sequoyah Bowman – AMENDED/CARRIED (For – French, Owle, Brown, TW Saunooke, Crowe, Taylor, Rose, Sneed, T. Saunooke = 80; Cons – McCoy, Wolfe, Wachacha = 20)

Res. #147: A resolution requesting the Tribal Council to approve an annual distribution to Qualla Arts and Crafts in the amount of $200,000 – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Res. No. 148: A Resolution Calling on the Tribal Council to Approve the Revised Policy Statements for the Miners’ Trust Fund and the Cherokee Central Schools Reserve Fund – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Res. No. 149: A resolution requesting that US 441 and the Acquoni Road Bridge read as follows: PFC Charles George, Medal of Honor, Bridge – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Res. No. 150: A resolution to amend the referendum questions presented in Res. No. 11 (2021) regarding Terms of Tribal Councils, to simplify matters and fix an election date – AMENDED/TABLED

Res. No. 151: A resolution requesting that the Tribal Council direct all future local community and economic projects to the Project Working Group for the attention of the Project Management Office – AMENDED/CARRIED (Unanimous = 100)

Res. No. 152: A resolution requesting that the EBCI Trade Division Secretary be approved as an additional staff member of the Trade Division and that the position be added to the EBCI organizational chart – PASSED ( For – French, Owle, Brown, TW Saunooke, Wolfe, Wachacha, Crowe, Taylor, Rose, T. Saunooke = 87; Against – Sneed = 6; Abstention – McCoy = 7)

Item #25: A resolution requesting the Tribal Council to approve a study titled “Woven Resilience: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach to Social Change in Cherokee Baskets” – ATTIRE for WORKING SESSION

Res. #153: Dr. William E. Copeland, Ph.D., receives permission to carry out research project titled “Great Smoky Mountains Study by Rural Aging” – PASSED (Unanimous = 87; Absent – McCoy, Brown = 13)

Res. No. 154: Dr. Jason Ostrander, DSW, is cleared to carry out the research project titled “The Gadugi Project: Improving Child Welfare Through Investing in Family” – PASSED (Unanimous=94; Absent – ​​Brown=6)

Res. No. 155: Dr. Elizabeth Anderson, DSW, LCSW, is authorized to carry out the research project entitled “Pathways to Advance Care Planning Among Members of the EBCI” – PASSED (Unanimity = 100)

Res. #156: Dr. Sara Duncan, Ph.D., to obtain permission to carry out the research project entitled “Our Air: Exploring Local Air Quality through Storytelling and Community Science” – PAST (Unanimity = 100)

Item #30: Emma Olsen, MPH, MSW, receives permission to carry out research project titled “Community Health Workers as Culturally-Responsive COVID Support in WNC Communities” – WITHDRAWN

Res. No. 157: The Snowbirds Community Library is authorized to add a Library Assistant position to the current org chart and will report to the Snowbirds Community Library Manager – PASS (For – French, McCoy, Owle, Brown, TW Saunooke , Wachacha, Crowe, Taylor, Rose, Sneed, T. Saunooke = 93; Counter – Wolfe = 7)

Res. NO. 158: Cherokee Indian Hospital Authority is hereby authorized to grant the Robins and Morton Group a right to arbitration in its agreement with Robins – PASSED (Unanimous = 94; Absent – Wachacha = 6)

Item #33: A resolution to make Charlie Rhodarmer an honorary member of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians – HELD until MARCH COUNCIL

Item #35: Tribal Council accepts appointment of Senior Chief and confirms appointment of Honorable Brenda Toineeta Pipestem as Associate Judge – HELD

Res. No. 159: A resolution supporting the Agriculture and Natural Resources Division of EBCI to begin construction of the snack for the removal of the Ela Dam – PASSED (For – French, Owle, Brown, TW Saunooke , Wolfe, Crowe, Taylor, Rose, Sneed, T. Saunooke = 87; Abstained – McCoy = 7; Absent – Wachacha = 6)

Res. No. 160: A resolution authorizing Debra C. McCourtney, Susa C. Spees, James D. Cooper and Janene C. Lancaster, first generation heirs, to transfer their interest in the possessory assets to the tribe – AMENDED/DROPPED

Res. No. 161: A resolution granting permission to partner with NC State University staff to conduct a climate action plan – TABLED

Emergency res. #162: Self-Government Pact with the United States Department of the Interior (DP more authority) – PASSED (Unanimous = 94; Absent – Wachacha = 6)

Emergency res. #163: A Resolution Supporting Compaction UNIT – CARRIED (Unanimous = 94; Absent – ​​Wachacha = 6)

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We asked Muslim women why they wear the hijab while playing sports. Here’s what they told us https://imos-journal.net/we-asked-muslim-women-why-they-wear-the-hijab-while-playing-sports-heres-what-they-told-us/ Sun, 27 Feb 2022 07:33:45 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/we-asked-muslim-women-why-they-wear-the-hijab-while-playing-sports-heres-what-they-told-us/ Jhe French Senate recently voted in favor of a bill to ban the wearing of the headscarf in sports competitions. Proponents of the legislation say the headscarf, or hijab, symbolizes Islamic radicalism, patriarchy and lack of female empowerment. Muslim female athletes and women’s rights activists condemned the bill, with one commentator calling it “gender Islamophobia”. […]]]>

Jhe French Senate recently voted in favor of a bill to ban the wearing of the headscarf in sports competitions. Proponents of the legislation say the headscarf, or hijab, symbolizes Islamic radicalism, patriarchy and lack of female empowerment.

Muslim female athletes and women’s rights activists condemned the bill, with one commentator calling it “gender Islamophobia”. Others pointed out how such laws have the potential to limit the inclusion of Muslim women in sport.

As researchers who study the inclusion of diversity in sport, we have conducted several studies looking at the sports participation of Muslim women over a three-year period. Our recent study, published in 2021, shows that many Muslim women want to wear a hijab when exercising, and they list many reasons for doing so.

Muslim women and sport

Muslim women’s participation in sports has remained historically lower than that of many other marginalized groups, such as indigenous groups and other racial minorities. This is particularly evident in socially conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, where only a few women have competed in the Summer Olympics.

In recent years, however, more Muslim women have started playing sports, especially in Western countries. In general, there has been a boom in the sale of modest Islamic fashion wear and the hijab as fashion accessories.

In 2018, the global market for Muslim fashion wear was estimated at US$283 billion, with Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and Indonesia being the largest. This market is expected to reach $402 billion by 2024.

Various sports brands have introduced the hijab for sports to tap into this market. For example, Nike introduced a “Pro Hijab” in 2017. Several other companies, such as Ahida, LiaWear, and Asiya Sport, produced the sports hijab before Nike.

We wanted to explore what Muslim women said about wearing the hijab when participating in sports.

What the research shows

We used a three-study approach to collect the data. This means that we collected data through open-ended questions from 23 Muslim women living in the United States in the first study. Based on these results, we developed an online survey questionnaire and conducted a preliminary test with 282 women from 11 countries. We then revised our materials and conducted the final study with a sample of 347 Muslim women from 34 countries.

The women in our study were already wearing the hijab, so we asked them why they wanted to wear the hijab during sports. Among the reasons they listed were that the hijab allows them to adhere to their religious beliefs, is comfortable and gives them a sense of empowerment. One of the participants said: “The idea of ​​hijab is linked to the concept of freedom and human rights. For me, a hijab is a personal belief and ideology, and everyone has the right to follow it or not.

The influence of other people in their lives was also an important factor. For example, several participants reported that men or women in their family could influence their choice to wear the hijab.

We also found that the opinions of other Muslim women often influenced their decisions. For example, women were enthusiastic about shopping for sportswear when their friends had also done so.

However, some Muslim women have expressed fear of being harassed in Western countries when wearing the hijab in sports. For example, one participant said, “Sometimes other members of the community don’t accept a pro-sport hijab and treat the woman with a hijab differently. This can bring negative feelings to this woman, such as the fear of being judged and mistreated in society.

We argue that this fear of harassment resulting from wearing the hijab in sport in Western countries could be a major impediment to improving sport participation for Muslim women.

Other researchers have already found that for Muslim women, wearing the hijab during sporting activities can be empowering. Researchers have also argued that Muslim women view the hijab as part of their unique identity in various Western contexts. It should be noted that not all Muslim women wear the hijab.

Researchers have also previously reported that Muslim women’s modest sportswear buying behavior depends on social norms and cultural values. For example, the hijab was never worn in the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, many Muslim women in Pakistan and India practice sports without wearing hijab.

Advocates for banning or opposing the hijab in France should listen to the opinions of Muslim women who wish to wear the hijab in sport. If the voices of hijabi are not heard, it will further exclude Muslim women from sports participation.

Umer Hussain, Postdoctoral Research Associate, ADVANCE, Texas A&M University

George B. Cunningham, Professor of Sports Management, Texas A&M University

This article was republished from The Conversation. Read the original article here.


Read also : Muslim women must see that the burqa is like the chastity belt of the dark ages, writes Taslima Nasreen


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On the issue of Hijab, listen to the missing voices https://imos-journal.net/on-the-issue-of-hijab-listen-to-the-missing-voices/ Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:37:48 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/on-the-issue-of-hijab-listen-to-the-missing-voices/ The lingering dispute over wearing the hijab in Karnataka’s classrooms has rekindled age-old debates around the veil, patriarchy and the status of Muslim women. However, amid the cacophony of familiar arguments and counter-arguments, one vital voice seems to be missing: that of Muslim women, especially young women, who have chosen to pursue an education in […]]]>

The lingering dispute over wearing the hijab in Karnataka’s classrooms has rekindled age-old debates around the veil, patriarchy and the status of Muslim women. However, amid the cacophony of familiar arguments and counter-arguments, one vital voice seems to be missing: that of Muslim women, especially young women, who have chosen to pursue an education in addition to their faith.

The singular narrative of Muslim women as isolated and brainwashed victims of a perceived male oppression peddled globally by imperialist powers has also found favor with majority forces at home. Often this narrative is peddled by various factions of society to ‘liberate’ Muslim women from the clutches of the Muslim man, the quintessential ‘mullah’. It’s easy to believe this singular story given its prevalence in the visual and literary depictions of Muslims around the world. The sheer number of films, pulp fiction, and talk shows based on this theme sets the discourse with which Muslims should engage. This obsession with the plight of Muslim women continues to authorize and legitimize a moral crusade to “save” Muslim women.

The harrowing images of Muslim teachers and students being forced to remove their headscarves and burkas at school gates in Karnataka recall the well-choreographed ceremonies held by French colonial rulers to publicly unveil Muslim women in Algeria. The United States’ “war on terror” was justified by the goal of “saving” Afghan Muslim women by carpet bombing Afghanistan. Anti-triple talaq legislation criminalized Muslim men to “save” Indian Muslim women. In this process, Muslim spaces are invaded, their practices criminalized and the voice of Muslim women appropriated.

The spokespersons of the hijab line in the media such as Arif Mohammad Khan, Taslima Nasreen, Javed Anand and Javed Akhtar do not represent the modern Muslim woman wearing the hijab. The lines between the right, liberals and progressives are blurred by their mutual pity for Muslim women. These voices claim to think for us and define the choices we have to make, just like the colonizers do. Muslim women prioritizing their commitments to the values ​​of their faith are not seen as a valid choice they should make. Muslim hijabi women, in the streets to defend their choice of dress, remain stubbornly ignored by those who preach the virtues of freedom. There is an obsession with defining the rights of Muslim women solely by the values ​​of choice and freedom, which are supposed not to exist within the community.

Such a framing of the oppression of Muslim women limits the other concerns that torment them. Whether it is the online “auction” of Muslim women’s bodies or the fetishization of Muslim women in Kashmir after the removal of Section 370, there is a growing trend of targeting Muslim women. Perhaps the worst of this sexualization occurs during communal riots, when the bodies of Muslim women are hunted down as prized possessions. This discourse on the liberation of Indian Muslim women is silent on their liberation from these daily acts of violence and Islamophobia.

The dynamics that shape the lives of Muslim women in India are varied and must be understood before reducing them to a single narrative. Political and historical explanations behind women’s oppression are often ignored instead of religious and cultural explanations alone, with little or no nuance. Many of the sufferings of women in general, and Muslim women in particular, can be attributed to reasons such as poverty, poor health, low level of education, limited access to public facilities and political violence inflicted to them and their families. But fears of being denied access to education and employment are not acceptable, unless there are religious reasons attached to them. The uproar over the hijab dispute shows the selective sensationalism of their concerns.

Muslim women are not silent spectators of Indian political discourse. The resilience of the women of Shaheen Bagh, many of whom wear the hijab and burqa, should not be forgotten. These women shaped the resistance by preserving the changing nature of an increasingly majority India. In this process, they also paid a heavy price, with their brothers, husbands and fathers being arrested, abused and held in Indian prisons. Civil society guardians must recognize their contribution to the defense of Indian democracy when they are most vulnerable. Any genuine commitment to combating gender-based forms of discrimination and violence in any community cannot be superimposed on an authoritarian outlook and a fixation on freedom alone.

Muslim women’s voices are infantilized, rejected and forced to choose between false binaries such as education or hijab, Indianness or Muslimness. Such a representation constantly pushes us to justify our choices, for fear of being misunderstood. Our daily lives in classrooms, professional spaces are transformed into court presence – framing and reframing, constantly polishing and refining our justifications in fear of being judged on a literacy lag scale.

The language of debate should not deprive us of the dignity of existing as practicing Muslims. Undressing Muslim women in public spaces outside university gates is nothing less than auctioning them off online, because it both humiliates and intimidates us. Our voices may be missing from the media channels, but we are definitely on the streets, fighting for the right to exist on our terms.

The author is a PhD student at IIT-Bombay-Monash Academy. She also leads a collective of Muslim women called Muslim Women Study.

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France calls for an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council https://imos-journal.net/france-calls-for-an-emergency-meeting-of-the-un-security-council/ Tue, 22 Feb 2022 16:06:46 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/france-calls-for-an-emergency-meeting-of-the-un-security-council/ 22 Feb 2022 16:41 Tensions in the Ukrainian conflict continue to escalate. Paris has now made it clear that it wants an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council after Moscow recognized the independence of the Donbas people’s republics. France on Monday condemned Russia’s decision to recognize the “separatist regions of eastern Ukraine” as a […]]]>

22 Feb 2022 16:41

Tensions in the Ukrainian conflict continue to escalate. Paris has now made it clear that it wants an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council after Moscow recognized the independence of the Donbas people’s republics.

France on Monday condemned Russia’s decision to recognize the “separatist regions of eastern Ukraine” as a violation of the country’s sovereignty. President Emmanuel Macron has called for an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council and the imposition of EU sanctions in response.

Russian President Vladimir Putin’s announcement that he would recognize the Donetsk and Luhansk republics as independent states was “clearly a unilateral violation of Russia’s international obligations and an attack on Ukraine’s sovereignty”, Macron said in a statement.

The French president then telephoned his American counterpart Joe Biden and Chancellor Olaf Scholz. in a report, the White House said the trio “strongly condemned” Russia’s recognition of the so-called DNR and LNR regions in Ukraine and would “further coordinate their response in the next steps.”

According to Berlin, the three leaders agreed that Russia’s “unilateral step” is a violation of the Minsk Protocol – an attempt by Germany, France and Russia to settle the conflict in Ukraine – and “will not remain not without an answer”.

“Germany, France and the United States condemn the Russian president’s decision in the strongest possible terms,” ​​the German version of the conversation said.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen has already warned that the EU will respond “with unity” to Russia’s recognition of the Donetsk and Lugansk People’s Republics.

Donetsk and Lugansk declared independence from Kyiv in 2014 after US-backed nationalists breached the power-sharing agreement brokered between France and Germany and overthrew the government during the so-called Maidan coup. Moscow had previously refused to recognize the republics, insisting that it was up to them and Kyiv to agree on their future status through negotiations.

Several attempts by the Ukrainian military to seize post-coup regions failed, leading to the Minsk ceasefire in 2015. Kiev has since refused to negotiate with the separatist regions, while the United States United and NATO have accused Russia of not sticking to the process.

In his Monday evening speech, Putin said his decision to recognize the two regions was a long-awaited response to Ukraine’s transformation into a “colony” of the West. The Russian leader argued that Ukraine had fallen under the yoke of a “Russophobic” government and accused Kyiv of pursuing policies that deprive ethnic Russians and Russian speakers of basic human rights.

more on the subject – Third World War? What Washington really wants from Russia

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Is the hijab a choice? India cannot defend secularism on the razor’s edge, like France https://imos-journal.net/is-the-hijab-a-choice-india-cannot-defend-secularism-on-the-razors-edge-like-france/ Tue, 15 Feb 2022 04:53:46 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/is-the-hijab-a-choice-india-cannot-defend-secularism-on-the-razors-edge-like-france/ IDoes the government of Karnataka practice “laïcité”, like France, which banned the veil and other religious symbols in public institutions as early as 2004? Should the Basavaraj Bommai government of the Bharatiya Janata Party in Bangalore be condemned for mocking the European Union’s highest court, which last year authorized companies to ban the wearing of […]]]>

IDoes the government of Karnataka practice “laïcité”, like France, which banned the veil and other religious symbols in public institutions as early as 2004? Should the Basavaraj Bommai government of the Bharatiya Janata Party in Bangalore be condemned for mocking the European Union’s highest court, which last year authorized companies to ban the wearing of headscarves at work? As for the Islamic Republic of Morocco, in 2017 it banned vendors and manufacturers from selling the burqa – a ban on wearing the hijab dates back to 2004.

This column is not about Saudi Arabia, where recent reforms introduced by Mohammad bin Salman mean women no longer need to wear the full black covering or “abaya” in public, can drive, go to the cinema, travel to abroad and live independently – arguably, Saudi Arabia remains one of the most conservative countries in the world.

In Gulf countries like the UAE, it’s anathema to criticize ruling sheikhs, but it’s their fatwas that have transformed Dubai into a shimmering Manhattan of the East, where women can wear whatever they want, including at the beach. In fact, since the 2020 Abraham Accords signed with former enemy Israel – and overseen by the United States – the United Arab Emirates has become a preferred tourist destination for Israel.

This column also does not apply Pakistanwhich seeks in theory to follow Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s 1947 saying on freedom of religion (“you can return to your temples and mosques…”), but in practice has banned valentines day celebration by insisting that women not only wear the black abaya but also black gloves, while men must don white prayer caps.

Or about Afghanistan, where the Taliban brought back the full blue burqa with a vengeance – girls and women can’t go out in public without a burqa or at the bare minimum, a hijab.

One of the most interesting examples of the state overturning its own dictate on the hijab is Turkey. When the Ottoman Empire fell after World War I, Kemal ‘Pasha’ Atatürk sought to lift Turkey out of the darkness of the past and force-feed it into the future – among his experiments was the 1925 Reform Decree clothing, including the ban on the hijab. More recent Turkish leaders, such as current President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, have leaned towards the Islamists; when he was prime minister in 2013, Erdogan made sure to rescind Atatürk’s 1925 decree on dress regulations.

As the Karnataka High Court hears the argument over whether or not female students should be allowed to wear headscarves or hijabs in their schools and colleges, it is interesting to see how countries elsewhere in the world have dealt with issues similar. What happens when religious tradition collides with the secular state?


Read also : The real problem in Karnataka’s hijab row is how ill-defined secularism is – Nehru to Modi


‘Secularism’ on the front

France has been at the forefront of this international debate for several years. He invokes a concept called “secularism,” which translates to a harsh brand of “secularism” that does not tolerate any argument on the equality front.

Crossing ideological lines, the state invoked tough measures in France to ban the full burqa in 2004, also known as the “veil law” – it prohibits the wearing of any “ostentatious” religious item, including the Islamic veil , the Jewish yarmulke and large Christian crosses — by centre-left Jacques Chirac; the facial veil, or niqab in 2011 by the right Nicolas Sarkozy.

In 2021, the French Senate pushed for an amendment to ban the headscarf for anyone under the age of 18, as part of an “anti-separatism bill” pushed by the government of President Emmanuel Macron. The amendment also provided for the ban on the headscarf during school outings as well as the ban on the “burkini”, the full swimsuit.

The French amendment, which led to the Twitter hashtag #HandsOffMyHijab trending for several weeks, follows the beheading of Samuel Paty, a teacher in the Paris suburbs in October 2020, by a Chechen immigrant.

Macron responded shamelessly by describing the knife attacks as a wave of “Islamic separatism” and then announced a series of public debates to defend “laïcité” – or the strict separation between church and state, which has been a feature of French politics and society since 1905.

“Laïcité” doesn’t mean the state isn’t involved in the lives of the French Catholic population — in fact, it funds both historic churches like Notre-Dame and Catholic schools. But the concept came to the fore again during North Africa’s freedom struggles against the French colonial empire in the 1960s, when Muslims in those countries – including headscarf-wearing women and children – arrived in large numbers in France.

Fast forward to the 2005 publication of a cartoon of the Prophet Muhammad in a Danish newspaper, which created an uproar across Europe; in 2011, the Sarkozy-inspired law against the niqab gave rise to riots throughout France; in 2015, the satirical magazine “Charlie Hebdo” in Paris was attacked because it caricatured the Prophet and 12 people were killed; in 2020, Charlie Hebdo republished the cartoons to mark the trial of the attackers, causing enormous anger in the Muslim world.

Shortly after the Charlie Hebdo attacks, Austria, the Netherlands and Belgium passed laws banning the niqab, while in 2016 then German Chancellor Angela Merkel declared that the Wearing the full veil should be banned wherever “legally possible”.

Significantly, France and Germany have around five million Muslim citizens in their countries – in 2020, following the murder of Samuel Paty, 79% of respondents said that “Islamism had declared war” to France.

Macron, fully aware that he is fighting an election this year, said at the time: “Samuel Paty was killed because the Islamists want our future and because they know that with silent heroes like him, they will not will never have it”.


Read also : In Karnataka, it’s not about Hijab, it’s bigotry and apartheid


Indian secularism has limits

Perhaps the biggest difference between the French and Karnataka versions of ‘secularism’ is that in France the public display of all religious symbols, be it the hijab, turban or Christian cross , is not authorized ; this is why the State believes it is right to enforce such a ban in the public sphere.

In India, by contrast, the more elastic version of “secularism” did not mean the end of religion in the public sphere, but the coexistence of the two. It is the limits of this coexistence that are on the table in the High Court of Karnataka these days.

In 2014, a poll of disenchanted Muslim populations in Europe by the Russian news agency Rossiya Segodnya found that 15% of France, 7% of Britain and 2% of the German population had a positive image of the Islamic State terrorist group. According to The Washington Posteven though the numbers weren’t really that high, they were quite high – he cited dozens of fighters from these nations as well as other European nations (notably Belgium) pouring into Syria and Iraq to support ISIS .

By contrast, although India is 14% Muslim, only a handful of people have been driven to fight the so-called holy wars in Afghanistan and the Levant.

So, is wearing the hijab a matter of choice or not? Can you defend the concept of secularism on the edge of the knife, as the French did, or is it counterproductive? As the Karnataka High Court hears the matter, the experiences of nations abroad on whether, how and to what extent to cover women can be instructive.

Jyoti Malhotra is a consulting editor at ThePrint. She tweets @jomalhotra. Views are personal.

(Edited by Prashant)

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Indian state’s hijab ban violates religious freedom: US official | News https://imos-journal.net/indian-states-hijab-ban-violates-religious-freedom-us-official-news/ Sat, 12 Feb 2022 19:09:42 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/indian-states-hijab-ban-violates-religious-freedom-us-official-news/ The United States Goodwill Ambassador for International Religious Freedom speaks out against the South Indian state’s hijab ban, prompting a strong backlash from India. A US official has raised concerns over the controversial headscarf ban in schools and colleges in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, prompting a forceful rebuttal from New Delhi. Rashad Hussain, […]]]>

The United States Goodwill Ambassador for International Religious Freedom speaks out against the South Indian state’s hijab ban, prompting a strong backlash from India.

A US official has raised concerns over the controversial headscarf ban in schools and colleges in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, prompting a forceful rebuttal from New Delhi.

Rashad Hussain, the United States Goodwill Ambassador for International Religious Freedom, said in a tweet on Friday that banning the hijab would stigmatize and marginalize women and girls.

“Religious freedom includes being able to choose one’s religious dress,” Hussain tweeted.

“The Indian state of Karnataka should not determine the admissibility of religious attire. Banning hijab in schools violates religious freedom and stigmatizes and marginalizes women and girls.

On Saturday, India’s foreign ministry hit back at what it called “reasoned comments” about its internal issues, adding that the case was under judicial review.

“Our constitutional framework and mechanisms, as well as our democratic and political ethos, are the context in which issues are considered and resolved. … Reasoned comments on our internal problems are not welcome,” said ministry spokesman Arindam Bagchi.

The row erupted last month when a group of Muslim female students protested after they were banned from entering their university because they were wearing the hijab – a headscarf worn by many Muslim women. Since then, several other colleges have seen protests both for and against the hijab ban, with right-wing Hindu groups wearing saffron shawls staging protests against the hijab.

International reaction

A Muslim student wearing a hijab was heckled by a Hindu far-right mob at a college in Karnataka state on Tuesday, sparking outrage.

The news prompted Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai to urge Indian leaders to end the marginalization of Muslim women. “University forces us to choose between studies and hijab,” she tweeted on Tuesday.

Manchester United and France international Paul Pogba have also expressed concern for Muslim women in Karnataka, sharing a video on Instagram with the caption “Hindu mobs continue to harass Muslim girls wearing hijab at university in India”. Hindutva is the Hindu supremacist ideology that inspires the ruling BJP in India.

Last February, New Delhi reacted strongly to tweets by singer Rihanna and climate change activist Greta Thunberg in solidarity with protesting farmers, saying the celebrities needed “a good understanding of the issues”. The farmers’ protests lasted for a year until the Modi government repealed three agricultural laws – the farmers’ main demands.

On February 5, the southern state government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) banned garments that “disrupt equality, integrity and public order”.

Karnataka’s high court postponed its decision on Thursday in response to a petition filed by a group of Muslim women against the hijab ban.

A three-judge panel will hear the case again on Monday to decide whether schools and colleges can order students not to wear the hijab in classrooms. The court, meanwhile, instructed students not to wear hijab in colleges.

Activists said the hijab ban was part of the BJP’s anti-Muslim agenda and contravened India’s constitution, which guarantees the right to religion for every citizen. Since Modi came to power, attacks against minorities, especially Muslims, have increased.

Muslim female students earlier told Al Jazeera that the college’s decision was shocking as they were allowed to attend colleges with their hijab until very recently. They argued that the constitution allowed Indians to wear whatever clothing they chose and display religious symbols.

Activists and opposition leaders have also criticized the state of Karnataka for passing an anti-conversion law and an anti-cow slaughter law last year, which they say are aimed at targeting Christians and Muslims.

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France’s new mantra: freedom, equality, digital sovereignty https://imos-journal.net/frances-new-mantra-freedom-equality-digital-sovereignty/ Mon, 07 Feb 2022 17:59:00 +0000 https://imos-journal.net/frances-new-mantra-freedom-equality-digital-sovereignty/ When European governments declared January 28 Data Privacy Day in 2006, few in the United States took the decision seriously. It took three years for the US Congress to follow suit and recognize this date as an opportunity to commit to data privacy. Today, as France takes new steps to reduce Europe’s exposure to American […]]]>

When European governments declared January 28 Data Privacy Day in 2006, few in the United States took the decision seriously. It took three years for the US Congress to follow suit and recognize this date as an opportunity to commit to data privacy. Today, as France takes new steps to reduce Europe’s exposure to American (and to some extent Chinese) technological dominance, the United States can no longer afford to be caught to take a nap.

France holds the rotating presidency of the Council of Ministers of the European Union (EU) for the first half of 2022, an ideal perch to pursue its digital ambitions. As well as presiding over an endless parade of obscure Council meetings, the French are convening a two-day public conference, starting today, titled “Building Europe’s Digital Sovereignty.”

On Monday, the focus is on “the four pillars that underpin European digital sovereignty: security, innovation, regulation and values, and openness,” reviewing the steps the bloc has taken so far and planning future movements. (“Values” is often code for resisting the long arm of US intelligence and law enforcement agencies, but “openness” is a wink that balances traditional EU membership to free trade, albeit weakened.) Tuesday will be dedicated to “Feeding Europe’s Champions”, featuring the continent’s tech entrepreneurs, especially those in small businesses.

This is not just another manifestation of the EU’s penchant for conference-based policy-making. Waving the flag of digital sovereignty is good domestic policy for French President Emmanuel Macron, especially as the country’s presidential election draws near. Economy Minister Bruno Le Maire and Secretary of State for the Digital Economy Cédric O have been at the forefront of efforts to develop local alternatives to foreign cloud service providers. Last year, they launched a “trusted cloud strategy” (“cloud of trust) establishing French data protection criteria vis-à-vis American laws. Companies such as Microsoft and Google have created joint ventures with French partners to offer their services without interruption. France also intends to seek a local successor to Microsoft to host its COVID-related Health Data Hub (HDH).

But even those measures have proven insufficient to protect governments like Macron’s from domestic allegations that they are too comfortable with Big Tech. On January 25, Virginie Joron, a member of the right-wing Rassemblement national party of Macron’s presidential rival, Marine Le Pen, denounced the French government’s initial decision to let Microsoft host the HDH. “You have introduced American giants into the data of French administrations, at the very heart of the State”, she declaimed in the European Parliament, according to a Politics report. Center-right presidential candidate Valérie Pécresse voiced similar criticism of the role of US tech giants in a recent speech to the French parliament. The French left also intervened.

These national measures are accompanied by an ever-growing EU digital policy agenda. In 2019, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen argued that “it is not too late to achieve technological sovereignty” in critical technology areas. Thierry Breton, a former French tech executive who is now the EU’s top internal market official, has acted as a landmark for measures to promote European cloud service providers and seed continental advances in new technologies such as blockchain, quantum computing and semiconductors. Margrethe Vestager, the bloc’s competition chief, has made headlines with her drive to challenge the business practices of US tech giants.

The Digital Markets Act and the Digital Services Act, which aim to tackle the economic domination and social impact of powerful online platforms, are about to be enacted. The European Commission has proposed a law on artificial intelligence, aiming, among other things, to regulate the uses of AI in the fields of education, employment and public benefits. The EU has already enacted the Data Governance Act, which is expected to improve the sharing of government-held data with private sector entities willing to exploit it. A complementary bill, the Data Act, due to be proposed later this month, also aims to facilitate business-to-business and business-to-government sharing of primarily industrial data.

The concept of digital sovereignty thus plays both an offensive and defensive role in the French presidency of the EU. By organizing conferences and chairing meetings of the Member States of the grouping, the Macron government can contribute to advancing European digital legislation towards its conclusion. These efforts, along with domestic moves to stymie foreign cloud giants, can also help immunize Macron against accusations from his presidential rivals.

As Frances Burwell and I argued in a paper for the Atlantic Council in June 2020, almost all of the EU’s new digital legislative proposals aim to exercise greater control over European data. It is undeniable that the idea of ​​digital sovereignty is today a driving force in debates on European technology policy. And the ripple effect of decisions taken in Brussels and other European capitals will be felt across the Atlantic.


Kenneth Propp is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council’s European Center.

Further reading

Image: The logo of the six-month French Presidency of the European Union is seen during the EU Ministerial Conference “Building Europe’s Digital Sovereignty” at the Bercy Ministry in Paris, France, February 7, 2022 Photo by Sarah Meyssonnier/REUTERS

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